1.    The teen brain becomes more active and gains more processing power. Teens start to have the ability to make adult like decisions, but such decisions can be heavily influenced by emotions.

2.   Emotions can be explosive.  Younger teens often have  a tough time with hormonal changes and can experience rage, fear, aggression towards others and themselves, excitement and sexual attraction.  As they get older things start to balance out and normalise into adult like behaviour.

3.   Peer Groups.  Such groups provide the teen with opportunities to learn social skills including negotiating, compromise and planning. Teens are highly sensitive to their peer group and how they fit in. However, teens in their peer groups are practising adult like behaviour and skills.

4.   Learning about risk.  Impulse control can be poor in earlier teens and teens can take foolish risks.  By the time the teen is 17 the part of the brain responsible for impulse control and long term perspective starts kicking in to reign in some of the riskier behaviour of earlier teen years. 

5.   Oxytocin!!  This should be good right????  However this very ‘bonding hormone’ increases sensitivity which can lead to teens feeling overly self-conscious, peaking at around 15 years old.  This might make a teen to act in a very self centered way, but it shall pass!

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